The conflict between eritrea and ethiopia discussion paper 82, royal institute of international affairs 1999 2126. Managing ethnic diversity stands as a challenging political issue for. There were continued incidents of ethnic conflict during. In the past there had been skirmishes occurring but they were always resolved until this time. Ethiopia is a mosaic of about 100 languages that can be classified into four groups.
With a history of over 3000 years, ethiopia is the only african country that was never colonized. United states interventions and conflict in multiethnic ethiopia. Eritrean forces moved into areas administered prior to the conflict by ethiopia, occupied territory, and. Nov 27, 2017 addis abeba, november 272017 conceivably, if there is a single most important question that requires in depth interrogation in the present political atmosphere of ethiopia it is this one. Ethiopians are ethnically diverse, with the most important differences on the basis of linguistic categorization. The border between tigray2 and eritrea was a peaceful and free border where ethiopians crossing to eritrea and vice versa would only require to possess and identification card. Being one of the most diverse nations in the world, ethiopia is not an exception to be free from ethnic conflicts due to its weak political structures and mal governance. Pdf ethnic federalism and conflict in ethiopia researchgate.
The imperial period 1974 ethiopia is the only african state never colonised by a foreign power. Ethiopia figure analysis displacement related to conflict and violence context ethiopia experienced the highest number of new displacements related to conflict and violence in the world in 2018. Its overriding concern is to secure the free flow of nile waters on which the country is dependent. A comparative regional study routledge studies in federalism and decentralization. The case of ethnicbased federalism in ethiopia journal of. A sporadic internecine ethnic conflict between oromo and somali speaking ethiopians is raging south eastern ethiopia, according to reports coming out of ethiopia. Abbink conflict studies are a burgeoning new field of academic research, reflecting the persistence of communal disputes and violent confrontations in the postmodern world. Ethnicity, ethnic conflict, ethno history of ethiopia, ethnic politics.
Human rights abuses and ethnic conflict in ethiopia stand. Ethiopia has also been involved in numerous clashes with islamic insurgents along the somali border. It is a landlocked country with a central mountain range divided by the great rift valley. It was first published in march 2011 edition of addis standard. Conflict resolution archives ethiopian legal brief. The vast majority of languages belong to the semitic, cushitic, or omotic groups, all part of the afroasiatic language family. Some problems and prospects of ethnoregional federalism j. The conflict between ethiopia and eritrea free law essays. Addis abeba, november 272017 conceivably, if there is a single most important question that requires in depth interrogation in the present political atmosphere of ethiopia it is this one.
Individuals by gregorio billikopf, free complete book pdf download, at the university of california 3rd edition, 2014. Pdf weaknesses of ethnic federalism in ethiopia haymi. Effectiveness of ethnic federalism in preventing conflict. A means for managing or a triggering factor for ethnic conflicts in ethiopia.
Historians on colonialism have identified six periods that emerged from the continuity of expansion. Situated in the horn of africa, ethiopia is bordered by eritrea to the north, sudan to the west, kenya to the south, somalia to the east and djibouti to the northeast. This issue still continues till this day and has caused many other conflicts. Abbink focuses on some problems and prospects of ethnoregional federalism in ethiopia. After 17 years of armed struggle, in 1991 meles zenawis party replaced the derg. What is behind the lates violence in the horn of africa. Nov 21, 2017 ethnic violence in ethiopia amid shadowy politics. Lessons to overcome ethnic conflicts in ethiopia, pdf, print. History, historical arguments and the ethio eritrean conflict. Partial award, jus ad bellum, ethiopias claims 18 19 december 2005 12. There has been great loss of livelihood on both sides. Ethnic violence in ethiopia amid shadowy politics ethiopia.
By structuring conflicts into various categories and comparing two very distinct regions as the somali and benishangulgumuz, the author has reached his goal to increase the debate over the shape of federalism in ethiopia. Above all, the conflicts seemed to be inter ethnic clashes resulting from sheer ethnic differences on account of the previously created inter ethnic distances among the various ethnic groups of the country. Ethiopia is located in eastern africa, just west of somalia. Abdi mohamud omar held a press conference in addis ababa, ethiopias capital on september 17, 2017. Politics, conflict and conflict resolution in the horn of africa. In modern ethiopia there is a strong popular belief that ethiopia in its todays shape is rooted in very ancient times, even if only 150 years ago ethiopia was still a very different state, encompassing. We encourage government and civil society to collaborate on improving conflict management policies and practices at the local, regional and national levels. Pdf the ethiopiaeritrea conflict and the search for. Ethnic federalism has been exploited to plant division among ethnic groups so as to institutionalize and facilitate rule by the tplf and other politically affiliated groups, representing a small proportion of the population. History, historical arguments and the ethio eritrean.
The conflict in eastern ethiopia, explained hiiraan. As multiethnic or homogeneous and iii way of life, as settled economics of strategy besanko pdf free download or. The endeavour to transform ethiopia into a federal state is led by the tigray peoples liberation. The case of amharaafar conflict in kewot and semurobi areas. As means of conflict resolution and exercising of democracy, the government architected the ethnic federalism system in which the country was divided into 9 administrative constituents and 2 self. There has been conflict in ethiopia and eritrea since 1952, when the u. Nov 01, 2012 conflict between and within countries can have lasting health and economic consequences, but identifying such effects can be empirically challenging. Border war and ethnic clashes leave over 150,000 internally displaced. Pdf causes of ethnic tensions and conflicts on campus.
This article is brought to you for free and open access by the faculty scholarship at scholarly commons. Thus, ethnic conflicts prevailing in ethiopia may be caused by such. Weaknesses of ethnic federalism in ethiopia ijhssi. Article information, pdf download for ethnic federalism and its potential. The existing ethnic federal arrangement of eprdf is devised with the aim to accommodate the interests of distinct ethnic groups in ethiopia. Federalism is debatable not only in practice but also at theoretical levels. The 1994 constitution of the federal democratic republic of ethiopia fdre. Ethiopia as a nation, defining it as an obsolete empirestate, a prison house of peoples.
When one talks of ethnic conflict between the amhara and the tigre in ethiopia, or the arabs and the africans in the sudan, for example, it is more accurate to talk about conflict between elite groups who come from different ethnic backgrounds than about peopletopeople violence among the masses arising from ethnic animosity, as the term. Ted dagne, the ethiopiaeritrea conflict crs report for congress, 6 july 2000 2 crs report for congress. The ethiopian peoples revolutionary democratic front eprdf, led by its chairman and prime minister, meles zenawi, has radically reformed ethiopias political system. Flanked by top federal government officials, they both spoke about the conflict in general terms. Aug, 2012 interethnic conflict transformation in ethiopia. The country was ruled by emperor haile selassie from 1930 to 1973. Conflict between and within countries can have lasting health and economic consequences, but identifying such effects can be empirically challenging. Violence in the country significantly increased and spread to new areas, and four times as many people were displaced as in the previous year.
During the last half a century, ethiopia has witnessed three regimes that differed from each other in ideology, internal composition, ethnic and social policies as well as foreign policy. Ethnic federalism and its discontents crisis group africa report n153, 4 september 2009 page 2 ii. Ethnic federalism and its potential to dismember the ethiopian state. This week, special police forces in somali region of ethiopia, reportedly, attacked oromo speaking ethiopians in jijiga, somali region of ethiopia. Though it seems straightforward enough, it is an enormous research question that necessitates proper scrutiny. Ethnic federalism and its discontents crisis group. This list includes both nationwide and international types of war, including but not limited to the following. Ethiopia eritrea border conflict has been said to be one of the deadliest border conflict in africa.
Ethnic conflict is simply a cleavage between groups based on differentiations in. We also ensure that women are empowered to play a role in peace building. The case of ethnicbased federalism in ethiopia international. The endeavour to transform ethiopia into a federal state is led by. But it is still important to discuss the main sources of conflict through examining the real experiences as. The conflict between the ethiopian state and the oromo people. Over the last year and half, the religious tension between christians and muslims has completely. As multi ethnic or homogeneous and iii way of life, as settled economics of strategy besanko pdf free download or. An ethnic conflict is a conflict between two or more contending ethnic groups. Reviews asnake kefales account on federalism and ethnic conflict in ethiopia is valuable and highly recommendable for interested readers.
The ethiopiansomali conflict is a territorial and political dispute between the territories of presentday ethiopia and somalia. Stability in ethiopia is important not only to the people of ethiopia, but also to the region as a whole. Indigenous systems of conflict resolution in oromia, ethiopia. Ethiopia adopted ethnic federalism and restructured the regions along ethnic lines as soon as the eprdf took. The issue of land and access to land is currently playing a major role in the ethiopian conflict dynamic. Though it seems straightforward enough, it is an enormous research question that necessitates proper. There were continued incidents of ethnic conflict during the year, particularly in the western. It traces its origin to the kingdoms that emerged in the northern highlands in the fourth century. Now that the ethnic federal experiment is more than a decade old, it is possible to make a tentative evaluation of its performance. Before the civil war, many believed that it would be impossible for free blacks and whites to live together.
Pdf the ethiopiaeritrea conflict and the search for peace. This article, reprinted below to mark our 2nd year anniversary, details a disturbing hostility between christians and muslims in ethiopia. Ethnic identity and the relations of amhara, ormo and tigray. The case of amharaafar conflict in kewot and semurobi areas alemu, anteneh on.
The situation in ethiopia is now relatively stable. Ethnic conflict in ethiopia pdf horn of africa ethiopia. United states interventions and conflict in multiethnic ethiopia new book. Despite being africas oldest independent country, ethiopia is one of africas poorest states, better known for its periodic droughts, famines, and intermittent civil con. Human rights abuses and ethnic conflict in ethiopia posted on january 4, 2017 by amala karri almost a year ago, the ethiopian government announced the addis ababa master plan, which proposed an expansion of ethiopias capital into surrounding farms within the oromia region. The rise in violent ethnic conflict in ethiopia in recent years can largely be linked to the sharp increase in. Later i got a call from him saying to come and collect the children as there was conflict nearby. The research design that the researcher employed was a qualitative approach particularly phenomenological. Lahra smith political violence and democratic uncertainty in ethiopia summary the pardon and release of thirtyeight political detainees, mostly from the leadership of the main opposition party, may give impetus to political negotiations in ethiopia. Ethiopia has over 80 ethnolinguistic groups and a long history of ethnic conflict. This is a list of conflicts in ethiopia arranged chronologically from medieval to modern times. This paper uses household survey data from eritrea to estimate the effect of exposure to the 19982000 eritreaethiopia war on childrens health.
Ethiopia, the erob, deals with conflict using indigenous mechanism for the management of conflict and for examining how effective the mechanism is. Ethiopia perspectives of conflict 19911999 preface the present paper is part of a series of case studies on the horn of africa presented and discussed at the workshop early warning in practice. The regime transformed the hitherto centralised state into the federal democratic republic and also redefined citizenship, politics and identity on ethnic grounds. The eprdfs ethnic federalism has not dampened conflict, but rather increased. Though it seems straightforward enough, it is an enormous research question that necessitates proper scrutiny and systemic analysis. Pdf african journal on conflict resolution find, read and cite all the research you need on researchgate. Despite being africas oldest independent country, ethiopia is one of africas poorest states, better known for its periodic droughts, famines, and intermittent civil conflicts. Causes of ethnic tensions and conflicts on campus among university students in ethiopia. Ethnic politics generates hostility amongst ethiopia s different ethnic groups that hinders group interaction and entails ethnic conflicts. After weeks of trading accusations, the presidents of the two regions, mr. Wars and conflict ethiopia eritrea this publication is now archived. Conflict and conflict resolution in eritrea, ethiopia. Though i was predisposed toward the ethiopia i had studied since the late 1950s, i.544 445 212 1158 855 1311 1390 716 406 1501 975 353 144 454 661 417 505 322 163 272 334 237 224 893 1487 1402 1327 1323 346 1280 1133 1359 1077 1045